Complete Guide to Solar Panel Manufacturing 2022

Commercial solar system in Pakistan

In this new guide, we will see together everything you need to know about the manufacture of photovoltaic Residential Solar systems in Pakistan. Are solar panels produced with rare earth Which technology should you choose monocrystalline or polycrystalline? Can you install Chinese solar panels without worry?

How To Make an Electric Solar Panel?

Composition And Manufacturing Steps of A Solar Panel

Today, the vast majority of photovoltaic solar panels are made of silicon. Residential Solar system in Pakistan Silicon does not exist in the free state. But it exists in different forms of minerals such as sand or quartz.

Solar silicon is thus obtained which takes the form of “small pebbles” or crystals.

These are finally fired at nearly 1,450° to create silicon ingots.

Once cooled, the ingots are cut into slices, with a thickness not exceeding 200 microns. Or the thickness of a sheet of paper.

The silicon wafers also called “wafers “, receive an anti-reflective treatment, which gives them their characteristic blue colour. In order to increase the quantity of light absorbed.

Indeed, an electrical circuit must still be printed on the surface of the wafer so that the collector current can be transferred.

All that remains is to connect the cells (between 48 and 72), solder them. Residential Solar system in Pakistan Encapsulate them between a glass plate and a polymer layer and then frame them to form a photovoltaic panel.

Solar Panel Component: Are There Rare Earth?

There are several types of photovoltaic panels. On the one hand, there are solar panels produced from crystalline silicon. An element that represents nearly 27% of the earth’s crust. They now represent more than 90% of solar panels both produced and installed. On the other hand, there are solar panels using CIGS technology.

What Does CIGS Mean?

This is an acronym for the chemical elements copper, indium, gallium, and selenium, which are much rarer metals but which are not, therefore.

Gray Energy and Solar Panel

It is widely accepted by the entire international scientific community that the stage with the greatest impact on the energy balance of solar panels is their manufacture (their recycling being now perfectly controlled).

And more particularly, the production of solar silicon constituting the photovoltaic cells.

Ultimately, it takes the equivalent of 2,500 kWh of energy per kW P of solar panels installed.

Silicon & Monocrystalline Solar Panel

The cells of monocrystalline solar panels are composed of cutting a single block of silicon. Their manufacturing process is relatively energy-intensive and expensive, but they benefit from better yields , often 20% higher, compared to other types of solar panels. They have the particularity of having better performance in low sunlight and of capturing the sun’s rays earlier in the morning and later in the evening.

How To Recognize Them?

Their manufacture from a pure silicon crystal gives them a uniform hue ranging from gray to dark blue. Second distinctive sign, is the absence of grooving on the panel. This one, easily identifiable on the other types of panels, is almost invisible here.

Polycrystalline Solar Panel

As their name suggests, polycrystalline solar panels are made up of several silicon crystals. Specifically, they are made from scrap pieces of silicon that are melted, cooled, and assembled through a faster and more economical process. They are therefore less expensive than monocrystalline panels but they benefit from lower yields ranging from 14 to 18% on average.

How To Make a Photovoltaic Cell?

To manufacture a photovoltaic cell, a reduction is made from a mixture made up of pieces of silica and wood. The solar silicon thus obtained is then heated to almost 1,450° in order to create silicon ingots, which are then cut into slices. These wafers are finally doped by adding phosphorus or boron.

Read More: Solar system for semi govt buildings in Pakistan

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